He now blew a loud blast with his horn, to summon any Christian concealed in the adjacent woods to his assistance, or to recall his friends beyond the pass. In Pseudo-Turpin , the key point about the taking of Pamplona was its miraculous nature; Charlemagne and his armies besieged the town for three months but were unable to overcome its invincible walls. This biblical implied author is part divinely-inspired Hebraic scribe, part Bede, part Isidore of Seville, part Peter Comestor, etc – and part custodian of the visual traditions of the various interpretive communities to which he belongs. The titulus which, as always in this window, is actually formed of clear-glass lettering emerging from a black-painted [] ground occupies a thin horizontal black strip, separated from the main pictorial field by a pair of red bands. After many further victories, Charlemagne accepts promises and tributes from his remaining enemies and leads his weary army homewards again. The Thirteenth Century , Princeton [], p. Perhaps the most unusual element of this panel is the mass of stylised plants and undulating ground which rises almost vertically up the left side of the frame and from behind which the riders emerge.

This can then lead to a tendency to interpret visual features according to what one is expecting to see, based on that particular text, rather than what is actually there. Reis, Russian Formalist Criticism: In practice however this need not be the case and in the case of polyscenic narratives the opposite is often true. Their wilful lack of determinacy requires our more active participation in the interpretative dialogue. Separate adventures, complete in themselves, are also interchangeable in time, for adventure-time leaves no defining traces and is therefore in essence reversible. In a distinctive and highly original composition, the artist has shown a jumbled group of knights at rest, sleeping against their large kite-shields. After trying to smash his famous sword, Durandel , he sounds his horn the oliphant and collapses.

At the start of the cycle, folio 6 recto Fig. Abelson, Scripts, Plans, Goals and Understanding: One has to assume that medieval kings did not generally sleep with their crowns on, though they are invariably depicted thus – see for example the dreams of Pharaoh Fig. The right hand side of this circular medallion is filled with a church-construction scene showing the disregard for scale that is normal for the period. I will return to the practice of defamiliarisation in chapter 6.


So far this discussion of the mapping of fabula-time into discourse-time has concentrated on the various ways of ordering events.

Stuart Whatling PhD Thesis – Chapter 2

Characters often expressing this role. Genette, Narrative DiscourseOxford [], pp. In real narratives such analepsis normally happens when the author needs to refer back to an earlier incident in order to explain or justify something that is happening at the present point in the discourse. Behind the altar is a very distinctive processional cross with a circle at its centre and elaborate finials on phx arms.

stuart whatling phd thesis

Selden, Cambridgepp. Those therefore, that were about to receive the palm of martyrdom were greatly astonished at this event, ascribing it to divine power. Although it has not been as widely accepted as the implied author, the concept of the implied reader remains useful, particularly when one considers the issues of indeterminacy and gap-filling. Criticism of Propp of which there has been a great deal has come from two main directions. The group of Saracens, although fleeing, present a solid cluster of helmets, very different from the disorganised trio who try in vain to defend their king in panel He then stretches this point slightly to see its appearance in the scenes of Constantinople panel 04 and the Holy Land panel 05 as representing the recent Latin conquest of the former in and the still longed for victory in the latter.

Generally however, narratology has been treated as an embellishment for existing studies of favoured objects or media, rather than a subject worthy of investigation in its own right.

10) Conclusions

Thus the role of the viewer in consuming visual narratives is generally more active and less controllable than is the role of the reader or auditor in consuming verbal narratives. All other elements at the edge of the scene are overlaid and cut off by the frame. Mural Decoration in Italian Churches,Chicago Though the quantity of sculpture burgeoned, the content remained strictly controlled by the syntagma of the Gothic portal, with its clearly demarcated narrative and hieratic zones.

To the left of the two rulers is a young male figure, bare-headed and nobly-attired. However, the narrative anticipation implicit in a proleptic episode changes its significance quite dramatically if one already knows the story. Clearly this phenomenon has important implications for visual narratives, particularly when scenes are arranged in sequence.


Even within a relatively coherent corpus such as Arthurian romance, characters, events and stories were eminently reusable and interchangeable, drawn as required from a rich stock of standard models. The steward himself lies on his back being mauled by a lion note the use of red-streaked glass for his blooded facewhile a yellow dog bites at his right wrist.

stuart whatling phd thesis

Anachronies see section 2. This particular thesis does not deviate substantially from the genre norms, though it does have a few quirks. It may be that just as the fictive frame helped in the quest for illusionism in Roman art, so the gradual move away from illusionism created a new role for the frame as an active participant in the narrative image, rather than simply its boundary marker the frame of its finestra aperta.

In the upper right section, the same knight has removed his helmet it is the green object visible in front of his left foot and is blowing a horn alongside further stylised trees.

Stuart Whatling PhD Thesis – Chapter 3

It is partly obscured however by the feet of Charlemagne and Constantine, slightly destabilising the separation between the two semiotic fields. One can for example thesjs a more directly relevant set of roles, specific to the needs of biblical and hagiographic narratives, as I have attempted to do in Table 3.

Towards the end of the eighteenth century, in his Stuarh of JudgementKant wrote:. Panofsky, Meaning in the Visual Arts: Bateson, Steps to an Ecology of MindChicago [], p. As with the Wise and Foolish Virgins, the characters represented by these statues may also appear in narratives – but there is usually a clear demarcation between their narrative and non-narrative roles.