The constant refractive index also indicates the thermodynamic stability of the formulation [ 53 ]. Phase separation and decrease in drug solubilization are commonly observed at higher temperature than the cloud point due to the susceptibility of surfactant to dehydration [ 42 ]. Self-emulsification occurs when the energy involvement in the dispersion is greater than the energy required for the formation of droplets [ 22 ]. The solvents of 5 mM ammonium acetic acid pH 7. Mepitiostane prodrug of epitiostanol and Mepitiostaneolefin with octanol: The lipids with high unsaturation have the tendency to get oxidized and the resultant peroxide may lead to detrimental effect on drug release due to the delay in capsule disintegration.

This was performed at zero predose , 0. The mean particle diameter analysis data were evaluated using the volume-weighting pattern. Ternary phase diagram is used to study the phase behavior of three components. In vitro anti-cancer activity and structure-activity relationships of natural products isolated from fruits of Panax ginseng. What determines drug solubility in lipid vehicles: Apart from poor water solubility, appreciable solubility of the drug in oil phase is important in the selection of suitable drug candidate for the formulation of lipid based delivery systems like SMEDDS [ 24 ]. Constant plasma levels of drug might be due to presentation of the poorly soluble drug in dissolved form that bypasses the critical step in drug absorption, that is, dissolution [ 13 ].

If oil and aqueous phase have high diffusion coefficients and are of the same magnitude as pure components, it indicates the presence of bicontinuous type microemulsion [ 55 ].

A surfactant is needed to adopt self-emulsification property by SMEDDS which is prime process to form microemulsion and it is also helpful to solubilize the hydrophobic drug; in turn the dissolution rate can be improved. Accept In order to provide our website visitors and registered users with a service tailored to their individual preferences we use cookies to analyse visitor traffic and personalise content.

By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Assessment of self-emulsification helps to determine the efficiency of self-emulsification of the formulation [ 24 ]. Usually the refractive index measurements are carried out using refractometers [ 57 ]. A transmission electron microscopy image is shown in Figure 3. These are mainly useful for the selection of the most suitable excipients that can be used in the preparation of SMEDDS and helps in the prediction of drug precipitation in vivo xelf 33 ].


Poor oral bioavailability is pronounced with deelivery majority of recent active ingredients because of dissolution rate limited absorption.

It is determined spectrophotometrically after dilution of formulation with water, keeping water as blank. For delivegy of pseudoternary phase diagram, mixtures containing different compositions of microemulsion components should be evaluated for emulsification efficiency [ 44 ].

Some of the commonly used cosolvents are short chain alcohols like ethanol, n-butanol, propylene glycol, and polyethylene glycol [ 330 ].

self microemulsifying drug delivery system thesis

deliveru This is mainly used for the characterization of microemulsions that are formed by dilution of SMEDDS in terms of peaks corresponding to water. AD-1, a novel ginsenoside derivative, shows anti-lung cancer activity via activation of p38 MAPK pathway and generation of reactive oxygen species. This problem is more pronounced in case of SMEDDS where the droplet size is much smaller than other self-emulsifying formulations.

self microemulsifying drug delivery system thesis

Due to their high polarity, they tend to migrate towards aqueous phase upon dispersion into aqueous media leading microemupsifying drug precipitation. The solubilization behavior of surfactant for the drug gained popularity due to its inhibitory effect on drug precipitation in vivo [ 30 ]. Although natural surfactants are less toxic, the efficiency of self-emulsification is limited [ 3 ]. Eighty-four such mixtures with varying surfactant, cosurfactant, and oil concentrations were prepared for this investigation.

Effect of Drug Addition on SMEDDS Optimal drug incorporation can be achieved if good compatibility exists between the added drug and the system with respect to physical and chemical properties. Then, the solution should be properly mixed and tested for the signs of turbidity.

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Exchange of matter usually occurs in two different ways like fusion of small droplets followed by the fission of larger droplet into small droplets and fragmentation of droplets which later coagulate with other droplets [ 32 ]. Though medium chain triglycerides have superior properties to long chain triglycerides, hhesis drug access to lymph is not possible with them and it is possible only with lipids composed of LCTs.


Improved solubility and lymphatic transport may contribute to this enhanced bioavailability. The rheology of microemulsion can be systfm by the graph plotted between shear stress and shear rate.

Stability studies are performed as per the ICH guidelines on the formulation which is filled in gelatin capsules. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4. Prolongation of GI residence time: The opening of tight junctions by the surfactants also contributes to the improvement in permeability and this was explored with the study conducted by Sha et al.

[Full text] Self-microemulsifying drug-delivery system for improved oral bioavaila | IJN

Ternary phase diagram is used to study the phase behavior of three components. We also retain data in relation to our visitors and registered users for internal purposes and for sharing information with our business partners.

self microemulsifying drug delivery system thesis

Dahan A, Hoffman A. The nanoemulsion droplets were observed to be spherical. Instead, modified or hydrolyzed oils of vegetable origin are beneficial due to their superior micgoemulsifying properties and compatibility with oral administration as their end products of degradation bear a resemblance to the end products produced by digestion process in the intestine [ 22 ].

The greater bioavailability from the SMEDDS can be achieved when the dose is very low especially for the drugs with high octanol: