Germ theory gradually replaced the musty vapours, ethereal humours and dark spirits that had been believed for so long to be the cause of disease. The death of Frederic D. Orphans are ubiquitous protagonists in the nineteenth-century European novel, in part because they dramatise the possibility of self- reinvention in the face of hardship and loss. During the late 17th and early 18th centuries, there were many of these Swiss soldiers scattered throughout Europe. Absence makes the heart grow fonder The definition of nostalgia as a mental disease, however, persisted. Civil War-era doctors and surgeons determined to meet the challenge of the circumstances by facing them head-on. Once these familiar initial symptoms take hold, Hofer explains, the stage is set for more serious pathological conditions which could even result in death.

He believed that obsessing over memories of home caused vital spirits to flock to the brain, thereby depriving the remaining grey matter of essential ethers. Unfortunately, no statistics are available for Confederate soldiers stricken with homesickness. Thus, for Heidi, Heimat and its accompanying malady become a convenient, socially acceptable signifier for her more profound feelings of loss and displacement. At first, Hofer proposed that the disease was unique to the Swiss due to the isolating qualities of the extreme mountain landscape, and maybe the effects of moving from higher to lower latitudes were to blame. Nostalgia became an established pathology, a mental disorder that continued to afflict soldiers separated from home or peoples displaced by the onset of modernity. The nostalgia for the good old days made people want to bring back things that

In 17th-century Switzerland it was certainly possible. Nostalgia or das Heimweh: Nostalgia adalah sebuah sentimentalitas untuk masa lalu, David Anderson does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organization that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment. As she arrives on the alp, her first act is to peel away the many layers of clothing she is wearing: It is as if she is formed as a character only once she arrives in her eventual Heimat.


Doctor’s Review | Dying to go home

Some Civil War soldiers were thought to have died of nostalgia. Thus, in spite of being equated by Hofer, there is a marked tension between our contemporary understanding of nostalgia — a longing expressed in temporal terms for a bygone era or phase of life — and homesickness — a longing which takes on a geographic or spatial character. Buffalo Niagara Heritage Village.

Logically, the medicalisation also implied that its diagnosis and treatment was now within the purview of physicians and medical professionals. For those who suffered from nostalgia, the prognosis was grim; even death itself was a possibility.

Other military medical men in Europe and North America noted that cases of nostalgia appeared to be more prevalent — even reaching epidemic numbers — when battles were being won rather than lost.

johannes hofer medical dissertation on nostalgia

Understandably, as the belief in homesickness as an organic disease fell by the wayside, the enlightened thinkers of the Romantic Movement picked it up again. Log In Sign Up. Through this simple, nosta,gia act, Heidi becomes physically linked to her new-found Heimat, which is depicted as a more natural habitat than the restrictive town from which she was extracted.

medical dissertation on nostalgia hofer

Write an article and join a growing community of more than 84, dissertatio and researchers from 2, institutions. The most effective remedy for homesick patients was to be sent home to the Alps.

For example, the South Carolina physician and medical essayist Francis P. On some level, Heidi maintains the same characteristic resilience and irrepressible, happy-go-lucky spirit that other young, female orphans like Pollyanna, Orphan Annie, and Anne of Green Gables seem to personify.

medical dissertation on nostalgia hofer

In his medical dissertation, Johannes Hofer Iowa Journal of Cultural Studies – ir. Thus, for Heidi, Heimat and its accompanying malady become a convenient, socially acceptable signifier for her more profound feelings of loss and displacement. Around a century later, nostalgia was still a popular medical diagnosis, specifically a psychiatric disorder that was often listed as a cause of death. Medical dissertation on nostalgia by Johannes Before long, other doctors were looking to nostalgia as an explanation for a variety of diseases of unknown origin, as well as the reason behind all manner of spontaneous recoveries.


Nostalgia, once regarded as a condition of homesickness, was widespread during the American Civil War. The importance that 19th-century Americans attached to homesickness reminds us how powerful this emotion can be.

The majority of recruits came from an agricultural or rural background. You might also like A trip down memory lane could do you more good than you might think.

The soldiers who died of homesickness

With the dawn of the 19th century, a new medical consciousness emerged in the West. The term nostalgia was first proposed in by Johannes Hofer as equivalent to the German Between her relocation to Frankfurt and eventual return home to the alp, her repeated acts of acquiring and shedding clothes become an index of her feelings of belonging or alienation. Occasionally, doctors assured patients that they would be returned home on a furlough if symptoms persisted. In explaining causes of Nostalgia, the reason to be considered of near The term was coined in by Johannes Hofer — in his Basel dissertation.

A miraculous return to health ensued within a week, as his dussertation and demeanour returned to normal.

Often partially recalled, nostalgic memories usually invoke pleasant associations and simultaneous regret at the passing of time.