Coxsackievirus A6 and hand, foot, and mouth disease, Finland. Short term effects of weather on hand, foot and mouth disease. The visual field was examined, which was not a valid exam, as visual acuity was low. Study Results Conclusions Liu et al. Child-care workers are exposed to a high prevalence of infectious diseases through their close contact with children. Oral lesions are the first clinical signs of the disease, and are sometimes the only sign, because they appear even before the lesions on the extremities [ 12 ].

However, it can also occur in immunocompetent adults [ 5 , 6 ]. A confirmed diagnosis at first visit to hospital can significantly decrease the risk of severe HFMD. In the case we presented, up to four adults who were in direct contact with the infected child suffered from the disease, as in the case described by Shin et al. The requirement for research and evaluation into this emerging occupational hazard area is necessary for improved prevention, management, and treatment strategies to be developed. Outbreaks, severe disease, and case reports of spread of the disease to immunocompetent adults has prompted the WHO to produce a guide for clinical management and public health response.

Murtagh J, Rosenblatt J.

literature review hfmd

Patients with CVA6 associated HFMD symptoms of infection saw a broader spectrum of the destruction to the skin and deeper tissues, such as nail abnormalities and peeling. HFMD remains a major public health problem in Singapore. Mechanism of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for severe hand-foot-mouth disease: He had no familiar, medical or surgical history, no allergies, not taking any medication and smoked ten cigarettes a day.

Microbiological results inconclusive Davia et al.

literature review hfmd

Unusual skin manifestation of hand, foot and mouth disease associated with coxsackievirus A6: Legey et al We assessed the eligibility of articles from the titles and abstracts, and extracted the information related to our target subject.


Vesiculobullous lesions extending over the whole body and onychomadesis on big toes.

A literature review and case report of hand, foot and mouth disease in an immunocompetent adult.

Vaccine The EV71 vaccine is also important for preventing infection. A case of varicella combined with hand-foot-mouth disease in a healthy child.

Physical examination was classic of features of HFMD and followed the expected clinical course to resolution of blisters, so serological testing was not indicated. Literature reporting on CSR has described the condition as rare and exacerbated by steroids and stress.

A literature review was performed via an automated search for information on the database: Improved surveillance in both the primary care and emergency care settings would provide increased knowledge regarding the incidence, demographics, and occurrence of both atypical presentations and unusual complications.

Enterovirus associated hand, foot and mouth diseases with neurologic symptoms, a university hospital experience in Korea, Coxsackievirus A6—induced hand-foot-mouth disease. There are three risk factors to identify children with possible neurological disorders that are easily identifiable: The literature presents a variety of atypical presentations and complications of HFMD.

Central serous retinopathy and hand–foot–mouth disease: coincidence or causation?

Bright KA, Calabro K. HFMD epidemics can persist for a long time in China, due to the different genetic variations in the composition of the virus, enteroviral characteristics of recombination and co-infection, increased travel, migration and the lack of an effective vaccine. Conclusions Dentists may have a key role diagnosing the disease. Maculopapular lesions were found on hands and feet. It is therefore vitally important to carry out epidemic surveillance of this disease and its complications, and consequently clinicians should inform health authorities to promote citizen participation in dealing with large epidemics of HFMD [ 5051 ].


A literature review and case report of hand, foot and mouth disease in an immunocompetent adult

Initial presentation of acute-onset fever, lumbar pain, and dyspnea; close contact with child with HFMD 1 week earlier. It can be noted that although literature demonstrating ocular complications of HFMD is limited, as the disease is not notifiable, many complications may be occurring worldwide without being reported.

literature review hfmd

For this review, we will build on the most relevant items and features that in relation with the HFMD are described in the selected papers. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

New Zealand coxsackievirus A6 outbreak. Epidemiology of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children in Shanghai — Shangai, China [ 26 ]. Frankfurt, Germany [ 52 ].

Discussion HFMD is a syndrome caused by intestinal viruses from the Picornaviridae family, and is mainly characterized by the appearance of vesicular lesions on the mouth, hands and feet. Epidemic characteristics of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Shanghai from to On the seventh day, there is an hfme in antibody levels and the disease begins to disappear [ 13 ].

Severe litetature It is worth noting the large number of reports on Asian patients with HFMD and severe neurological complications caused by EV71, which can rapidly progress to fulminant cardiorespiratory failure and death.