The seven components of content analysis listed above see Section 4. The own Bardin suggests this possibility. MAYRING’s concept of qualitative content analysis was developed in the s in a longitudinal study about psycho-social consequences of unemployment, when about open-ended interviews yielded more than 20, pages of transcripts, which had to be analyzed in a qualitatively oriented way cf. If the categories emerging from the data, not from the theory, then one can say that these categories are grounded in the data, i. We discuss the processes of coding and categorization and their underlying logical mechanisms:
According to them, classical content analysis “comprises techniques for reducing texts to a unit-by-variable matrix and analyzing that matrix quantitatively to test hypotheses” and the researcher can produce a matrix by applying a set of codes to a set of qualitative data e. However, going into greater detail concerning these issues would be beyond the scope of this paper. Sampling validity refers to the usual criteria for precise sampling and correlative validity refers to the correlation with some external criterion e. He contends that any of these strategies can be used in practicing five specific techniques for analyzing case studies: Case studies are widely used in organizational studies and across the social sciences, and there is some suggestion that the case study method is increasingly being used and with a growing confidence in the case study as a rigorous research strategy in its own right cf. Synthese , 1 ,
However, great efforts have also been made to reconcile both sides or, where not possible, at least to soothe the disputethus providing the opportunity to exploit the advantages of both approaches and opening the way for synergy effects e.
Subject-reference instead of technique: Validity Material-oriented Semantic validity Sampling validity Result-oriented Correlative validity Predictive validity Process-oriented Construct validity. The use of qualitative content 2006.thee in case study research. Administrative Science Quarterly24 December Citations Publications citing this paper.
Kohlbacher f. 2006.the use of qualitative content analysis in case study research
As a result, in the case of a prior hypothesis testing, there is the dependence of the interpretation of a theoretical and conceptual system as its basis. Besides, theory development 206.the not only facilitate the data collection phase of the ensuing case study, the appropriately developed theory also is the level at which the generalization of the case study results will occur. Especially the combination of qualitative methods and quantitative methods seems to be appropriate in order to gain deeper insight and a more general view of the object of research cf.
First, case study research as a research strategy within qualitative social research is briefly presented. First, case study research as a research strategy within qualitative social research is briefly presented. Abstract This paper aims at exploring and discussing the possibilities of applying qualitative content analysis as a text interpretation method in case study research.
It can certainly contribute to adding and enhancing rigor, validity and reliability of case study research. Qualitative Social Research, 7 1.
The use of the qualitative content analysis in psychology: a critical review
The phenomenon, however, is an extension of the datum, something that is stable and not always observable.
Therefore, qualitative content analysis can be viewed as a comprehensive approach to data analysis, which seems to be especially suitable for case study research. While upholding the view that the phenomenon, through the lens of theory and from the model, ensures the prospect of watching of a portion of the world, the CA should look into the data as associated to an understandable phenomenon by a given theoretical perspective, creating the phenomenon-theory-datum axis, which is the support of the research design.
The seven components of content analysis listed above see Section 4. If the path adopted anapysis possible without a prior theory, it is understood that the phenomenon can be grasped from the datum – and only then, the theory that represents it is sought empirical adequacy ; but as we have seen, 206.the seems problematic and questionable the attempt to analyze data without having in mind a phenomenon.
At the same time, qualitative content analysis uses a rule-based and methodologically controlled approach in order to deal with the complexity and gradually reduce it.
The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research – ePubWU
Organization12 1 The object of qualitative content analysis can basically be any kind of recorded communication, i. There has been an ongoing debate on the appropriateness of different approaches and methods in social research. Qualitative Social Research7 1Art. Examining the nature of educational inclusion for students labelled with a specific learning ib SLD Joanne Maree Webber Kvale, Kohlbacher,in line with the. Theory building in qualitative research: According analyxis HARTLEY research design is “the argument for the logical steps which will be taken to link the research question s and issues to data collection, analysis and interpretation in a coherent way” p.
Before we take a look at the individual steps in the process of conducting case study research, it is now time to deliver a definition of what case study research actually is. According to YIN a one of the most important sources of case study reswarch is the interview: The further development of new quality criteria calls for an analysis of where and what kind of other errors can be made or occur in conducting content analysis ibid.
The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research
The Figure 1with some adaptations, illustrates the view of this author, who introduces a model notion in the composition of the datum- phenomenon-theory triad, presenting it as a central element for the indirect test kohlbachee theory and the mediation between and data and theory. Consequently, MAYRING has developed a sequential model of qualitative content analysis and puts forward three distinct analytical procedures which may be carried out either independently or in combination, depending on the particular research question MAYRING,p.
The practice of social research 9th ed. In the empirical sciences, inference is a fundamental process, as it seeks from the factual knowledge to reach the awareness of the reasons for this fact. Besides, the analyzing of data is enhanced by reference to the existing literature and using this to raise questions about whether the researcher’s findings are consistent with or different from extant research ibid.