KARAMANA RIVER THESIS

This is a factor unique to southwestern coast of India and as such it has significance while addressing the palaeoclimate potential of the past forest remains. Thiruvananthapuram is a notable academic and research hub and is home to the University of Kerala , Kerala Technological University the regional headquarters of Indira Gandhi National Open University , and many other schools and colleges. A Portable Dictionary of Vascular Plants. Gregarious along the intertidal estuarine regions of mangrove forests, often as a pioneer species on newly formed mudflats; Marine Used for paper pulp, matches, and as poles [45]. Advanced Search Watchlist Search history Search help.

In India, it grows in association with the mangrove Avicennia officinalis , the golden leather fern Acrostichum aureum and the sea holly Acanthus ilicifolius. The present river channel is narrow as compared to the wide valleys occupied by flood plain sediments. This species tolerates a maximum salinity of 40 ppt and a salinity of optimal growth of 8—33 ppt. Moraceae Diffuse-porous; Growth rings indistinct Tropical evergreen tree; distributed throughout the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia Moist evergreen forest, mixed deciduous forest, dry deciduous forest Valued for its wood. Geologically, the study area is composed of the Archean crystallines Khondalites and Charnockite group of rocks , Neogene sediments represented by Warkalli and Quilon Formations and Quaternary deposits represented by coastal sands, muds and alluvium Figure 1. The excessive rainfall, higher than the present rate, was responsible for the development of thick forest and forest swamp cover virtually all over the terrain, including the coastal plains, midland and highlands. Along the banks of Kayamkulam and Vembanad lagoons, including Mundakan, Kari, Kuttanad and Kol lands, subfossil logs are encountered while digging canals for local navigation and irrigation.

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Details of the location of wood samples and their retrieval along with their environment are presented in table 1. Kaarmana species is found in the intermediate to upstream estuarine zone in the lower to mid-intertidal region, and more to the seaward side. Transverse section of another sample showing distribution of tylosed vessels and apotracheal parenchyma lines.

It is during this period that the deserts of Sahara too witnessed development of large lakes and prolific forest cover [58] and the Chad Lake in Central Africa expanded to three times its present state [59]. The forest cover seems to have extended even up to the present coastline towards Mid-Holocene [13][46]. The pattern of flooding and uprooting of roots along the river banks and entombment of the tree trunks occurred soon thereafter.

karamana river thesis

The characteristic features of the fossil wood are: The wood of C. Careya is a small genus 4 species of trees and shrubs found in the Indo-Malaysian region. However, this event is followed by restoration of the monsoon to the present level, but not to the extent of — karzmana BP monsoon peak.

Paduthodu, Manimala basin Wood 0. Retrieved 17 May Retrieved 3 January Raipur Bhilai Madhya Pradesh: Archived from the original on 18 September The natural affinity of the carbonized woods and subfossil logs with their nearest-living-relative forms NRLretrieved from the wetlands and associated landforms of southwestern Kerala, has been addressed while appraising the vegetation and climate dynamics of the Holocene period. More than a century has elapsed since the occurrence of sub-fossil woods in shallow subsurface sediments of recent origin in several parts of India was discovered.

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The antiquity of the described species and their present distribution has also been dealt with. Rhizophoraceae Very hard and termite-resistant wood; Growth rings distinct Is a species of mangrove found on coasts and river banks in the Indo-Pacific region.

The clay in such wetlands is usually 2—5 m thick and rich in carbon.

karamana river thesis

The rivers became much more erosive in nature due to the increased gradient, and therefore caused widespread removal of the sediments already deposited, except in inland lakes and depressions. Greyish black clayey sand with subfossil wood. Retrieved 28 October karamaana Retrieved 28 March Gondwana Research 7 2: This technique has already gained importance in palaeoclimatic study [2].

karamana river thesis

Packing cases and boxes; match splints [45]. This would have led to higher stream velocity and hence extensive erosion of river channels and other environments.

Department of Cultural Affairs, Government of Kerala.

A wood sample at 7. Department of Business Administration, Kerala.

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Another sample of wood has yielded an age of ca yrs BP [13]. Retrieved 23 May However, the forest vegetation preserved is an infinitesimally small part of the one that thrived, but constitutes a major terrestrial palaeoclimate proxy from the Indian subcontinent. Nair2 Ruta B.