Nomads and Ottomans in Medieval Anatolia. From the European Christian perspective, religious difference was the main reason to start a holy war. And that is why Osman and his descendents were called ghazi, for his principle of action was not to bear sway by usurpation over the lands of believers, but solely through ghaza and jihad. Such a law derives its authority only from the prestige and justness of the ruler. When we arrived to this place, we found ourselves in a grim situation and they were nice to us. Kedar and Jonathan Riley-Smith London, A few passages need here to be cited:

They could be found also in the Arab-Byzantine frontier zones after the Umayyad period. In this discursive and historical context, the self-image of the Ottoman princes began to form as gazi-sultans. These Turkish groups were the inheritors of an administrative legacy that passed to them from Muslim Seljuk and Mongol-Turkish Ilkhanid roots. Paul Wittek claimed that the Ottoman state expanded because of its Islamic inclination to wage a holy war or gaza. Be the first to review this item Amazon Bestsellers Rank: He too readily passed by the fact that the gaza rhetoric was rather intended for internal consumption as a tool for legitimation of the Ottoman political formation. The early Ottoman sources made a difference between the concepts gaza and jihad and the later was not used in the early Ottoman narratives on campaigns.

ghazi thesis wittek

Promulgating holy war as a basis for territorial legitimacy, Ottoman ideologists faced a problem in that the sultans had acquired many of their lands in wars against Muslims and it was difficult to present these hostilities as ghaza.

John Watts, The Making of Politics. Issue 04 Issue University of California Press, It was only certain writers, educated in the Islamic tradition, who tried to draw a connection between the secular ghaza of the frontier warriors and the religious ghaza as understood by Muslim intellectuals.


ghazi thesis wittek

Gaza, Jihad and Holy War In order to clarify some matters in this complex debate, it seems better to firstly consider the semantic differences of the notions gaza and holy war. The first wave occurred in the 11th century, when a large part of the Turkish Oghuz tribes crossed the Oxus river and came to Khorasan and Azerbaijan. Theesis Construction of the Ottoman State, Turkish scholar Cemal Kafadar addressed criticism of the Ghaza thesis by arguing that previous scholars had drawn too great a distinction between “orthodox” and “heterodox” Islam — one could consider oneself a legitimate Muslim without conforming exactly to a scholarly orthodoxy.

Follow the Author

Les origines de l’empire ottoman. Over the last two decades, our understanding of Ottoman history has become richer and better balanced thanks to recent historical scholarship.

They could be found also in the Arab-Byzantine frontier zones after the Umayyad period. The central question focused on how the Ottoman state could develop in a few generations from a tiny principality into a world gyazi and could survive for more than six centuries.

Would you like to tell us about a lower price? Krey, The First Crusade: Thus, Witteks methodology was fundamentally not wrong. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire.

He was the first historian who translated the term gaza as holy war. ghazk

In an article published inJennings pointed out that the Ottomans could not be regarded as ghazi because their army was a melting pot of population of the Anatolia region and not a ghazi army. By the twentieth century, the ghazi ideal still kept its popular romantic features as was emphasized in the case of Mustafa Kemal, who was depicted as a ghazi. Log In Sign Up.


The ghazi concept was discussed mainly in this context, neglecting its other components. The Turkish Studies Association Journal.

(DOC) The ghazi concept and Ottomans | Claudia-Florentina Dobre –

If fervor for the Holy war played an important role in this frontier area, then our pool would clearly exclude Byzantines, for they would have became the detested enemy of the faithful. Yet rather than Turkish ethnicity and tribal connections, he placed wittdk primary emphasis upon the role of Islam. Timur restored the Turkish princes and divided the Ottoman territories.

ghazi thesis wittek

Their conversion to Islam did not mean that they were totally skinned of all of their old beliefs and traditions. The western idea of holy war was driven by proselytism and was characterized by religious intolerance, which usually thesi the coexistence witttek different creeds very difficult. Jerusalem was since in Muslim control. A few passages need here to be cited: Robert Dankoff Cambridge, 51, The final breakdown came after the loss of nearly all the European possessions due to Ottoman defeat in the Balkan Wars of Write a customer review.

I shall write you a book of warriors [gazavatname], hear it, or tell me your objections.

The Construction of the Ottoman State Berkeley 52 and To register a new user click here.