This provides the background for the analysis in the remaining chapters. Jessie was my constant companion through all stages of the research and without her my sanity might not have remained intact! Front Pancasila Pancasila Front, the coalition of anti-PKI parties and mass organisations, including the action units. Ariel Heryanto has suggested that: Since the s the student organisations which were associated with the major political parties had been divided along ideological lines.

Both these campaigns provided the army with significant financial and political returns and so strengthened its position. What had motivated them to take to the streets in as well as at various other times? Two studies which examine the relationship between language, power, and the politics of identity in New Order Indonesia are Langston and Berman In the past youth had to tear down the old system and overthrow colonial power, shoot the enemy and reduce everything to rubble if the enemy occupied our territory. These texts are considered in their wider contexts, both their wider textual context as well as their broader social, cultural and political context. Students studying in universities and institutions of higher education outside of the Indies were differentiated from secondary and vocational school students by the use of the Dutch term student.

Readers are reminded that this thesis is not an exercise in translation. In terms of their field, she notes, trituta Independence Day Addresses are concerned with the role and aims of the New Order.

Since the s the student organisations which were associated with the major political parties had been divided along ideological lines.

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Speaking and writing The role that language is playing in an interaction is a dimension of its mode. Yet while the youth of the regional youth organisations remained somewhat cautious in their politics, the students of the Perhimpunan Indonesia Indonesia Association were from the beginning of the s consciously involving themselves with the more radical end of the nationalist trithra.

essay peran pelajar dan mahasiswa dalam aksi tritura

First and foremost, I would like to thank Virginia Hooker for her enthusiasm for this project and her faith in my ability to do it. The literature on opposition to the state has tended to focus on the themes of opposition or the activities of political essag see for example Aspinall ; Uhlin The result was an increasing concentration of power at the highest levels and, in particular, in the person of the president Mackie and MacIntyre; see also Crouch The Japanese occupation did, however, result in the mobilisation of much greater numbers of pemuda under the age of It focuses on the period between and – the height of the New Order – and on the period pelamarwhen Indonesia entered a limited period of openness keterbukaanand the fall of Suharto in see Aspinall ; Bertrand ; Lane By the beginning ofhowever, the focus had shifted to political and economic issues Douglas; Mohammad and Kats This is consistent with the claims made above that the production of mahasisww is only one part of the process of meaning-making, the other being the process in which readers or listeners interpret texts and from this produce compliant or resistant readings.


If indapam were able to awaken national awareness, if in youth were able to sow the seeds of Indonesian unity, if inyouth planted the spirit of mahasissa and the spirit of the faithful warrior opposed to colonialism, then now and in the future we also wish for youth to become dalaam forces tenaga-tenaga to develop our independent nation and country Suharto a, The context of situation can be described in terms of the field of the text what the text is aboutthe tenor of the text what relationships exist between the kasi in a text and the mode of the text what role the language is playing in the text and how the text is organised Halliday33; Tritjra and Hasan Bourchier suggests that the growth of a new, more politically aware middle class and the emergence of organised labour led to increased pressure for more meaningful political participation ibid.

This is largely a legacy of the colonial period when Dutch high schools and, later, colleges and faculties, were located in centres such as Batavia JakartaBandung, Malang, Yogyakarta, Semarang, Medan and Solo Fischer95 and ; see also above.

Although the period of openness to some extent did assimilate soft-line opposition, student protest in fact escalated during this period. However, it also considers texts which incorporate both a written and a visual element, such as the ;elajar cartoons examined in chapters four and six.

There is therefore a need to develop further the kind of close linguistic analysis undertaken by HeryantoMatheson HookerEriyanto and Saryono and Syaukat by linking it, as Langston and Bermando, with a theory of power and power relations.

Its genesis lies in attempts beginning in the late s tirtura explore the social and ideological dimensions of language. The emphasis on ideologies of dissent is also of value.


Project in Progress

Like their colonial counterparts, the university students of the s mostly came from relatively privileged socio-economic backgrounds Magenda However, as Fairclough points out, this view is an overly constitutive one Fairclough Throughout this thesis the term identity is used in the plural form since, as Foucault has pointed out, individuals have multiple identities, which reflect the various social domains which they occupy see below.

Mahawiswa the riots of Januarythe government took an increasing interest in KNPI, forming 33 Triyura the course of the early s Golkar formed a number of similar corporatist organisations.

essay peran pelajar dan mahasiswa dalam aksi tritura

Therefore it is the exercise of power that brings about the emergence of objects of knowledge … and the possible subjects that constitute themselves around them Barker These theories suggest that dominant groups, by virtue of their possession of power, are able to manipulate knowledge and so control others.

The dwlam important quality of these pemuda was their revolutionary semangat spirit.

essay peran pelajar dan mahasiswa dalam aksi tritura

Hodge and Mansfield argue that political satire contains both positive and negative modality. The analysis is also concerned with an examination of the patterns of modality in the text, with how discourse positions people as subjects and with who has the authority to speak a particular discourse.


Ordinary members and committee members had to be school students but honorary members and extraordinary members did not see Soeharto and Ihsan Chapters three, four, five and six constitute the substantive component of the thesis.

However, the term pelajar also remained in use. From the point of view of this study, however, the main weakness of these analyses is the fact that the pellajar between the linguistic features and the dynamics of power relations is not adequately explored. Participation in public life and the power which that distributes depends on access to and mastery of the forms of writing. Lexical sets also have an important categorising function: Dave McRae generously allowed me to use some of his material on akksi activism and provided some daan discussions over coffee.